Here in British Columbia the general equipment and machinery safeguarding requirement starts in section 12
OHS Regulation 12.2 – a machine must have adequate safeguards.
OHS Regulation 12.3 – the safeguards must be designed to meet CSA Z432-94.
OHS Regulation 12.4 – the safeguards must be effective.
OHS Guideline 12.3 – allows you to follow CSA Z432-04. This is a much easier version of the equipment standard to follow and we suggest this to all of our clients. There is a more recent version in 2016 which more closely harmonizes with ISO 13849.
If you have a power press, a break press or a shear;
OHS regulation 12.29 – the design of safeguarding and operating controls must meet CSA Z142-M90.
There are updated versions of this standard (2002 and 2010) which should be followed instead of the 1990 version to ensure that you are current in your design. In Ontario, all presses have to conform to the current version of the standard – avoid having to upgrade in the event of a regulation change and simply follow the current revision of the standard. Other ANSI standards are also referenced, which are parent documents to the CSA standard.
If you have an industrial robot (three or more interpolated axes);
OHS Regulation 12.83 – the design, use, programming and training must meet the requirements of CSA Z434-94. There is an updated version of this standard, CSA Z434-15 which harmonizes with ISO 13850 with regional differences.
An industrial robot or robot system must be installed, safeguarded, maintained, tested and started, used, programmed and workers trained to meet the requirements of
(a) CSA Standard CAN/CSA-Z434-94, Industrial Robots and Robot Systems — General Safety Requirements, or
(b) ANSI Standard ANSI/RIA R15.06-1992, American National Standard Industrial Robots and Robot Systems - Safety Requirements.
There are numerous variations and additional requirements to the information listed here, but this is a starting point to help you understand what your guarding will need to look like;
The standards basically state that if you can reach it, it’s a problem. If you don’t need to access the hazardous area, install fixed guards. If you do need to access the area, install interlocked guards.
The basic requirement of a fixed guard is that it is a minimum of 1800mm high from the walking surface to the top of the guard, and a maximum of 150mm from the walking surface to the bottom of the guard. There are additional requirements based on the height of the hazard and the distance from the operator. These guidelines may not meet the additional requirements. With the guards in place, can you reach the hazard? If so, the additional requirements likely apply.
Hydraulic, pneumatic, electric, gravity – what kind of interlock do I need?
You need to incorporate your safety control system isolation to control all sources of energy in the order of effectiveness stated by the hierarchy of safeguarding controls (See CSA Z432 standard for more info).
Remember that the standards don’t tell you what to safeguard, only how to safeguard (with the exception of prescribed methods in the press and robotic standards). Essentially, the level of a safeguarding performance must equal the level of risk faced as defined in the risk assessment. This is the most important document to establishing a safer work environment within the context of safeguarding of machinery.
Obtaining CSA standards
Visit CSA GROUP to purchase CSA standards – they’re available for download in .PDF format online or can be delivered in hard copy via mail. Also, CSA standards can be viewed online for free at CSA GROUP COMMUNITIES. This will allow viewing only, but is very handy to reference standards by the OHS regulations in each province.